Building foundations

The common forms of foundations in structures will be described in detail. All foundations, in general, are split into two types: deep foundations and shallow foundations. The terms “shallow” and “deep” relate to the soil depth in which the foundation is built. Shallow foundations can be built as shallow as 3 feet,  whereas deep foundations can be built to depths of 60 to 200 feet. Small, light structures have shallow foundations, whereas massive, heavy structures have deep foundations.

Are you confused about which is the best foundation that has to be used in your home?

Before choosing a foundation for a building project, it’s a great way to discover its appropriateness.


Many people prefer trench fill because it eliminates the need for bricklaying underground. The concrete is filled to within 150 mm of the ground level’s surface, which cuts time and effort. Because the sides of the trench are just as important as the bottom in maintaining the weight, this foundation should only be utilized on the stable ground with firm, load-bearing trench sides. For trench fill foundations, both clay and chalk soils are acceptable.


The most frequent form of foundation used for building construction is an individual footing, often known as an isolated footing. This foundation, also known as a pad foundation, is designed for a single column. Individual footings are square or rectangular in shape and are utilized when the structure’s loads are handled by the columns. The size is determined by the weight on the column and the soil’s safe bearing capacity. When the foundation encounters moments owing to eccentric loads or horizontal stresses, a rectangular isolated footing is chosen.


Strip footings are a type of load-bearing masonry footing that acts as a long strip that supports the whole weight of a wall. When building weights are borne by complete walls rather than separate columns, such as in ancient masonry buildings, they are utilized.


Raft foundations, also known as Mat foundations, are most commonly used to build basements. In a raft, the whole basement floor slab serves as the foundation; the building’s weight is distributed equally throughout the entire footprint. The structure is termed a raft because it resembles a vessel that ‘floats’ in a sea of earth. Mat foundations are utilized in situations where the soil is soft and building loads must be distributed over a vast area, or if columns are close together and individual footings would cause them to collide.


A pile is actually a long cylinder of a hard material, such as cementitious materials, rammed into the ground to support structures on top of it. The following scenarios need the usage of pile foundations. When a layer of poor soil is present at the surface. Because this layer is unable to support the weight of the building, the loads must be transmitted to the layer of firmer soil or rock that lies underneath the weak layer. When a structure contains a lot of heavy, concentrated loads, as high-rise buildings. Pile foundations can withstand more weight than spread footings. There are two types of pile foundations, each with its own set of advantages and disadvantages.

End Bearing Pile – The bottom end of an end-bearing pile stands on a layer of particularly strong soil or rock. The building’s force is transmitted to the strong layer via the pile. In some ways, this pile resembles a column. The bottom end lays on the surface, which is formed by the junction of two weak and strong layers. As a result, the weight is securely transmitted to the strong layer, bypassing the weak layer.

Friction Pile – Friction piles function on a different premise. By friction, the pile distributes the building’s burden to the earth across its whole height. To put it another way, the pile’s whole surface, which is usually cylindrical, works to transmit forces to the earth. The amount of load a friction pile can support is exactly proportional to its length. However, in practice, each pile absorbs weight by a mixture of end bearing and friction.

You Can’t Build A Great Building On A Weak Foundation….You Must Have A Solid Foundation If You Are Going To Have  A Strong Superstructure…..!!!



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